It is the first bank and set of senior bankers to be charged with criminal offences over actions taken during the financial crisis.
The charges relate to the bank's move to raise cash from Qatari investors Qatar Holding and Challenger Universal in June and October 2008 and a $3bn (£2.36bn) loan made available to the State of Qatar in November the same year.
The executives include former chief executive John Varley, and senior staff members Roger Jenkins (who was central to the Qatari deal), Thomas Kalaris, and Richard Boath.
The bank and all four defendants have been charged with conspiracy to commit fraud by false representation in relation to the June 2008 capital raising. While the bank, Jenkins and Varley have also been charged with unlawful financial assistance.
The charges are a result of a five-year investigation by the SFO. The defendants are due to appear at Westminster Magistrates' Court on 3 July.
Jenkins’ lawyer said the banker will "vigorously defend" himself against the charges, according to Reuters.
"As one might expect in the challenging circumstances of 2008, Mr Jenkins sought and received both internal and external legal advice on each and every topic covered by the SFO's accusations," said US lawyer Brad Kaufman.